Today is considered sufficient to increase the energy needs of a woman pregnant, healthy and well nourished, in 200 to 300 Kcal per day during the second and third quarter, total of 2000 Kcal. the daily requirement during pregnancy about 1700 + 300Kcal
- Nutritional requirement
For pregnant woman protein needs are of 1 g/kg/day. During pregnancy these needs increase given the huge synthesis of new both maternal and fetal tissues, especially in the last quarter. The National Council of American research proposed that starting in the second quarter, the pregnant woman should eat of 10-12 grs. additional protein when you are older than 24 years and 15 grams per day when it is under 24 years of age.
Special recommendations related to the in take of this nutrient macro, for pregnant women has not been established. They must provide around 50% of the total energy in take. They are in potatoes, cassava, Cocoyam, celery, banana and cereals.
It must eat about 6 servings/day, divided between meals and snacks for example two slices of bread, 30 Gr. dry cereal, a cup of oat meal or fororo, a medium-sized arepa, six crackers, half a cup of rice, hot cereal or cooked pasta. Cereals and whole grain bread are preferable. 1/2 cup vegetables, 1/4 cup of banana.
- Nutritional needs during pregnancy
The amount of lipids in the diet will be approximately 30% of the total energy. Not only the quantity but the quality of the fat that is ingested during pregnancy is important. It should take into account the need of certain fatty acids, which are important for the formation of the nervous system and the retina of the fetus, and this contribution is guaranteed including fish in your diet.
During pregnancy there is a Hyperlipidemia (increased cholesterol and triglycerides) physiological. They are also found in meats, dairy products and vegetable oils. They must drink 2-3 glasses of milk per day, you can swap with 2 slices of cheese or aration of 30 Gr. cottage cheese or curd, a yogurt.
- Nutritional needs during pregnancy
There is an increase in the requirements of vitamins during pregnancy and they play acrucial role in metabolism, most do not contribute with the energy input, with abalanced diet is enough to meet the daily requirement and don't need any vitamin supplement. Vitamin C is essential for the absorption of iron.
We can get them in yellow, vegetables, green leafy vegetables and fruits. In its raw form gets all its nutritional value. They should eat five to seven servings per day, a serving is equivalent to half a Cup when they are cooked, when they're raw or 180 ml in juice, a cup can spread in two cups of vegetables (watercress, spinach, lettuce, green beans, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, red pepper, calbacin) and 5 servings of fruit a day.
Special mention should be folic acid since it has an a 122% increase due to the growth of the fetus and the placenta needs as well as increase the maternal red blood cell production. Currently it is recommended that all women in reproductive age consume 400 mcg/day three months before pregnancy in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects.
The daily requirement of iron are 15 mg/day, and during pregnancy, these requirements increase to a total of 30 mg/day, ferrous sulfate salt is which is better absorbed. The dose to correct anemia are far greater. Anemia has been associated with prematurity, newly born of low weight at birth. The requirement during pregnancy increase can not be satisfied by the content of iron in ordinary diets or by the many women iron reserve, therefore recommended the use of 30 to 60 mg of supplemental iron.
Requirements of iron during lactation are not substantially different from non-pregnant women, but it is advisable to keep for 2-3 months after delivery supplementary administration of iron to replenish the reserves that have been decreased during pregnancy.
Calcium and phosphorus
Daily calcium requirements are additional 400 mg 800 mg recommended